Virology, a branch of biological science was developed with the discovery of Tobacco mosaic virus in 1898. Viruses are known to infect all sorts of living organism and those known to be restricted within plant kingdom are referred as plant viruses. Although a few groups of plant viruses are known to infect insect vectors, so far none of the plant viruses is known to infect higher animals including human beings. The size of plant viruses ranges between 16 and 2000 nm and generally organized with nucleic acids and protein in either cubic or helical symmetry resulting in isometric or rod shaped architecture. During 1971, another class of infectious phytopathogen containing only nucleic acids and no protein coat, and causing diseases similar to plant viruses was discovered in potato and referred as viroid (Singh 2014). Plant viruses are important constraint in world agriculture. Of all the phytopathogens, studies of plant viruses have received special attention as they are difficult to manage. Numerous plant viruses are presently known globally and almost all the crop species are affected by one or the other viruses. Plant viruses were discovered in late 1880s. Over the last three decades, application of molecular methods revolutionized our understanding of plant viruses. Viruses are of simple biological identity that undergo continuous changes in their genetic makeup and thereby exist in numerous variants. The continuous evolution in viruses poses a great challenge in their identification and classification. No single property of viruses is adequate to identify them.
Nucleic Acids and Proteins in Plants I:Structure, Biochemistry and Physiology of Proteins Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology / Nucleic Acids and Proteins in Plants. Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982.
Nucleic Acids and Proteins in Plants II:Structure, Biochemistry, and Physiology of Nucleic Acids Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology / Nucleic Acids and Proteins in Plants. Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982 Donald Boulter, Benno Parthier
The third edition of the Encyclopedia of Analytical Science is a definitive collection of articles covering the latest technologies in application areas such as medicine, environmental science, food science and geology. Meticulously organized, clearly written and fully interdisciplinary, the Encyclopedia of Analytical Science provides foundational knowledge across the scope of modern analytical chemistry, linking fundamental topics with the latest methodologies. Articles will cover three broad areas: analytical techniques (e.g., mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, atomic spectrometry); areas of application (e.g., forensic, environmental and clinical); and analytes (e.g., arsenic, nucleic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), providing a one-stop resource for analytical scientists. Offers readers a one-stop resource with access to information across the entire scope of modern analytical science Presents articles split into three broad areas: analytical techniques, areas of application and and analytes, creating an ideal resource for students, researchers and professionals Provides concise and accessible information that is ideal for non-specialists and readers from undergraduate levels and higher
The entire range of the developmental process in plants is regulated by a shift in the hormonal concentration, tissue sensitivity and their interaction with the factors operating around the plants. Phytohormones play a crucial role in regulating the direction of plant in a coordinated fashion in association with metabolism that provides energy and the building blocks to generate the form that we recognize as a plant. Out of the recognized hormones, attention has largely been focused on Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid, Ethylene and more recently on Brassinosteroids. In this book we are providing the information about a brassinosteroids that again confirm its status as phytohormones because it has significant impact on various aspects of the plant life and its ubiquitous distribution throughout the plant kingdom. Brassinosteroids are generating a significant impact on plant growth and development, photosynthesis, transpiration, ion uptake and transport, induces specific changes in leaf anatomy and chloroplast structure. This book is not an encyclopedia of reviews but includes a selected collection of newly written, integrated, illustrated reviews describing our knowledge of brassinosteroids. The aim of this book is to tell all about brassinosteroids, by the present time. The various chapters incorporate both theoretical and practical aspects and may serve as baseline information for future researches through which significant development is possible. It is intended that this book will be useful to the students, teachers and researchers, both in universities and research institutes, especially in relation to biological and agricultural sciences.